Science

 List of Basic Chemistry Element Terms and Definitions

 List of Basic Chemistry Element Terms and Definitions

 List of Basic Chemistry Element Terms and Definitions

A Branch of science which deals with the structure,properties constituents and change which takes place is known as chemistry.
Origin of chemistry -: Chemes means black color. Egyptian called black earth as “chemi ” and in early age the study of chemical science was known as chemistry.
Lavoisier is known as father of Modern Chemistry.
Here List of Basic Chemistry Element Terms and Definitions-

TermDescription
AcidsThese are the chemicals that produce positively charged hydrogen ions (H+) or a proton in solutions.
AdhesiveA substance that sticks two surfaces together.
AeratedWater that has had air (oxygen) blown through it.
AerosolVery small solid particles suspended in air.
Air pollutionContamination of the atmosphere caused by the discharge, accidental or deliberate, of a wide range of toxic substances.
AlkaliA base which is soluble in water.
AlloyIt is metal prepared by adding other metals or non-metals to obtain desired properties.
Amino acidsThe organic acids which are constituents of all proteins in living organism.
Ammonium chlorideIt is a white, soluble, crystalline salt, used in dry cells.
Ammonium nitrateIt is a colourless, crystalline salt, used in some explosives.
AntacidsSubstances used to reduce the pH of stomach juices and, therefore, relive indigestion.
AnodizingIt is a process of coating aluminium oxide, or alumina, using electrolysis, it makes the surface more resistance to corrosion.
AntibioticThese are medicinal compounds producedsd by moulds and bacteria, capable of destroying or preventing the growth of bacteria in animal system.
AntisepticIt prevents infections, decay and inhibits the action of microorganism.
Aromatic compoundsThese are organic compounds like benzene which have a strong smell
ArgonIt is a colourless gas which has no smell.
ArsenicIt is poisonous metallic element.
AsbestosIt is a useful variety of a rock-forming mineral which is fibrous, very heat-resistant and chemically inert.
AsphaltIt is a brown or black tar-like substance, a variety of bitumen, found in a natural state or obtained by evaporating petroleum.
AspirinIt is an acetyl salicylic acid.
BactericideIt is a substance used to kill bacteria e.g. antibiotics, antiseptics and disinfectant.
Bath saltsThese are salts used to soften hard water.
BauxiteThe principal ore of aluminium, consisting of a mixture of hydrated aluminium oxides and hydroxides, generally contaminated with compounds of iron, which gives it a red colour.
Beta ParticleElectron ejected with great velocity from a radioactive atom that is undergoing spontaneous disintegration.
BiodegradableCapable of being broken down by living organisms, principally bacteria and fungi.
BitumenIt is a dark black viscous hydrocarbon manufactured artificially by heating coal, it is used in coating the surfaces of roads.
Blast furnaceIt is a special kind of furnace, iron is made inside a blast furnace.
BoraxIt is a white crystalline salt with an alkaline nature used in the manufacture of glass, soldering of metals, enamels, gems, soaps, etc.
Boric acidIt is a white crystalline solid which behaves as a weak acid and used as mild antiseptic and in the manufacture of cement, enamels, etc.
CarbohydratesEnergy-producing organic compounds, e.g. cane sugar, glucose, starch, etc.
Carbon dioxideIt is a colourless, odourless, tasteless gas about one and a half times as heavy as air. It is given out during respiration.
Carbon monoxideIt is a colourless, odourless gas resulting from the incomplete oxidation of carbon, it is poisonous to animal for it bind to haemoglobin more strongly than oxygen.
CarvacrolA thick oil extracted from the oil of mint and used as an antiseptic and anaesthetic.
CatalysisA phenomenon in which the addition of a small quantity of a substance enhances the rate of reaction manifold, without the added substance itself being consumed in the course of the reaction.
CentrifugeAn apparatus that rotates containers at high speeds, creating centrifugal forces.
ChemotherapyIt is the treatment of diseased by the administration of chemicals.
ChlorineIt is a chemical element, a yellow, poisonous gas which dissolves in water. It makes water safe to drink.
ChloroformIt is a sweetish, colourless liquids and used as a solvent and anaesthetic.
ChlorophyllIt is a green pigment found in all members of the plant species, excluding fungi.
CholesterolIt is steroid compound in all animals, but not in plants.
CharcoalIt is a black solid which contains carbon, it is made by heating wood in a closed space with no air.
CobaltIt is a very hard and silvery metal, it is mixed with iron to make cobalt steel.
ChemistryIt is the science concerned with composition of matter and of the changes that take place in it under certain condition.
ChlorinationThe addition of chlorine to drinking water and to water used in swimming pools in order to kill dangerous bacteria.
Citric acidA colourless substance especially used in jams and fruit juices as a preservative.
CokeLight type of coal obtained when coal is heated in the presence of air.
CorrosionIt is a process whereby stone or metal is chemically eaten away.
Dichloro diphenyl trichloroethane (D.D.T.)It is a common insecticide insoluble in water, easily soluble in ethanol and acetone.
DehydrationElimination of water
DesalinationThe process of removing dissolved salts, mainly sodium chloride, from seawater and brackish water to yield potable water for human consumption.
DetergentA synthetic cleaning agent, it has the ability to emulsify oils and remove dirt.
DiamondHardest substance known, made of pure carbon.
DistilliationA process involving both evaporation and condensation simultaneously, used for purifying liquids.
DynamiteIt is used for blasting. It contains sodium or ammonium nitrate sensitized with nitroglycerine and use absorbers like wood pulp.
ElectroplatingA method of coating one metal with a thin layer of another metal.
EmeraldThe green germ variety of beryl ,One of the most highly prized gemstones.
EnamelA hard material containing over 90 percent calcium and magnesium salts which provides protection against corrosion or decay.
EnzymesProteins that carry out different metabolic and functional reaction in animals and plants.
EphedrineA white solid used in medicine for the treatment of asthma colds.
Epsom saltsHydrates of magnesium sulphate used in medicines to empty bowels.
EthyleneA colourless gas used in making plastic (polythene) and in artificial ripening of fruits.
EthanolA colourless, flammable alcohol whose boiling point is 780 C. Ethanol is the alcohol contained in alcohol drinks.
EtherIt is colourless liquid which burs very easily, it evaporates very quickly.
EvaporationConversion of a liquid into vapour without necessarily reaching the boiling point.
FermentationA chemical change brought about in organic substance by the enzymatic action of living organism such as yeast and bacteria.
FerrousIt describes iron or any metal which contains iron.
Flash pointThe lowest temperature at which a substance catches fire on being lighted with a flame.
Flint glassGlass containing lead silicate used for optical purposes.
FluorideIt is a chemical compound.
FluorescenceEmission of light by a substance when some radiations fall on it.
ForgingA process in which metals are given the required shape by compressing them.
Free radicalGroup of atoms in particular combinations capable of free existence under special condition, usually for very short periods.
Hard waterWater that does not lather easily with soap, and that produces ‘fur’ or scale’ in kettles, it is caused by the presence of certain salts of calcium and magnesium.
HeliumIt is colourless, odourless, gaseous, non-metallic element.
HormonesCompounds internally secreted in animal which stimulated organs in their respective action. e.g. insulin, adrenaline, testosterone, etc.
HydrogenIt is colourless, odourless, gaseous, non-metallic element.
InertIt is a substance which does not burn and does not change when it is heated.
Inorganic chemistryIt is branch of chemistry dealing with the element and their compounds, excluding the more complex carbon compounds.
KineticsIt is the branch of chemistry that investigates the rates of chemical reactions.
KryptonIt is colourless, odourless, gaseous, non-metallic element.
LactoseA sugar found in milk and used in some baby foods.
LigniteA soft, brownish-black coal in which the texture of original wood can still be seen.
LipidsFats and their derivatives that occur in living systems.
LitmusIt is a coloured dye which is often used to coat special strips of paper called litmus paper.
LuminousIt describes something that gives out light.
Lysergic Acid Diethylamide (LSD)It is an extremely powerful drug that causes distortions in thinking and feeling.
MagnesiaA white, tasteless powder used as a mild laxative and antacid.
Marsh gasConsisting mostly of methane.
MentholA white, waxy, crystalline solid obtained from the oil of pepper mints and used in medicine and perfumery.
MercuryA silvery white liquid metal.
MethaneIt is a colourless gas.
MethanolIt is also called methyl alcohol or wood spirit.
MineralsAli compounds that are obtained from the earth’s crust.
Milk of MagnesiaCommon name for a suspension of magnesium hydroxide in water. It is a common antacid.
MorphineA pain killing drug, It is the main alkaloid present in opium, being 10 percent of its weight.
MorterA mixture of cement, sand and water used to bind together bricks and stones.
MoltenState of a solid that has been heated until it melts.
Mustard gasA highly poisonous liquid which vaporises easily and is sued in chemical warfare.
NapalmAn abbreviated form of sodium (Na) palmitate. It is a gel made up of some readily burning hydrocarbon oils and soap. It is used a sin incendiary weapon with wide destructive power as it sticks to the target while burning.
NaphthaIt is a mixture of hydrocarbon of low molecular weight obtained either from coal tar, petroleum or shale oil.
NarcoticIt is a drug which tends to induce sleep or unconsciousness, for example, morphine.
NeonIt is a chemical element and is a colourless gas which does not dissolve in water.
Nerve GasIt is a gas used in chemical warfare which is especially damaging to the nervous and respiratory systems.
NeutronIt is an elementary particle that is a part of the atoms of all elements except normal hydrogen. It is present in the nucleus of the hydrogen. It is present in the nucleus of the atom along with another particle, Proton.
NicotineA poisonous oily liquid which is the principle compound in tobacco.
NitratesSalts of metals, formed with nitric acid.
Nitric acidA strong minerals acid used in medicinal preparations and in industry.
NitrogenA gaseous chemical element.
Nobel metalsMetals such as gold, silver and platinum which are chemically much less reactive compared to other metals.
Non-ferrous metalsAny metal other than iron of steel.
NucleusThe central dense part of an atom which contains practically all its mass.
Octane NumberA measure of the quality of petrol.
OreA natural occurring mineral normally mined for the extraction of metal on a commercial scale.
Organic ChemistryBranch of chemistry that deals with carbon compounds,, in particular the more complex ones.
OsmosisThe movement of solvent (liquid) through a semipermeable membrane separating solutions of different concentrations.
OxidationIt is a kind of chemical reaction.
OxideA compound of oxygen and another element,, frequently produced by burning the element or a compound of it in air on oxygen.
OxygenA colourless, odourless, tasteless, non-metallic, gaseous element.
OzoneA highly reactive pale-blue gas with a penetrating odour.
ParaffinIt is an oily liquid.
PasteurizationA heat-treatment process to reduce the number of micro-organism present in food in order to extend its shelf-life.
PenicillinAn antibiotric produced by the fungus.
PhosphorusA highly reactive, non-metallic element.
PhotosynthesisA process by which green plants trap light energy and use it to drive a series of chemical reactions, leading to the formation of carbohydrates.
Pig iron or cast ironThe crude, unrefined form of iron produced in a blast furnace.
PigmentIt is a kind of coloured powder, It is mixed with liquids make paint.
PipetteDevice for the accurate measurement of a known volume of liquid, usually for transfer from one container to another, used in Chemistry and Biology laboratories.
Plaster of ParisA form of calcium sulphate, obtained from gypsum, mixed with water for making casts and moulds.
PlatinumA heavy, soft, silver-white, malleable and ductile, metallic element.
PotassiumIt is chemical element.
ProteinAny of a large number of complex organic compounds made up of long chains of amino acids and found in all living organism.
PropeneA colourless, inflammable gas, it is widely used by industry to make organic chemicals, including poly-propylene plastics.
QuicksilverAnother name given to mercury.
RadiotherapyIt is used by doctors to help some of their patients.
RadiumRadioactive, metallic element.
RoentgenIt is a unit for measuring the dose of radiation.
SaccharinA white crystalline solid which is 550 times sweeter than sugar, but does not have any food value.
SapphireAny gem, other than ruby, especially of blue colour due to traces of cobalt present in it.
Sewage treatmentWaste water from industry or the home is treated in several ways in order to make it fit again for use.
SilicaA hard, insoluble white, colourless solid with a very high melting point.
SiliconIt is the chemical element.
SlagIt is the molten mass of impurities that is produced in the smelting or refining of metals.
SmeltingA method by which metals are separated from their original ore.
SmogA form of air pollution, dark, thick dust laden sulphurous fog that pollutes the atmosphere in industrial cities.
Sponge IronIt is iron in porous form.
SodiumIt is chemical element.
Soft waterType of water that easily produces a lot of lather with soap.
SolventIt is a liquid.
Stainless steelIt is iron containing 4 percent chromium to resist rusting.
SteroidsClass of organic compounds present in animals and plants. These are present as bile acids.
SucroseCane Sugar made of glucose and fructose.
Sulphur dioxideIt is a colourless gas which can make people cough.
Surgical SpiritIt is ethanol to which has been added a small amount of methanol to render it unfit to drink.
SyntheticIt describes an artificial substance.
ThermodynamicsThe branch of science dealing with the conversation of energy from one form to another, especially heat and mechanical energy.
TitaniumIt is a chemical element, a hard, white metal which does not corrode easily.
ToxinA poisonous substance produced by a living organism, generally bacteria.
TungstenIt is a chemical element, a grey metal which has a very high melting point, Filaments in electric light bulbs are made from tungsten.
UreaIt is called carbamide, it is a white crystalline organic compound with m.p. 1330C, it is found in the urine.
Unleaded petrolPetrol manufactured without the addition of antiknock.  It has a slightly lower octune rating than leaded petrol, but has the advantage of not polluting the atmosphere with lead compounds.
VinegarA solution which is made by the action of bacteria on wine or cider.
VitaminsChemicals which are important to the proper working of the body. They tend to be complex organic molecules which must be eaten, as in daily products are (Vitamin A) or fruit (Vitamin C).
VulcanizationA chemical process of improving the physical properties of natural rubber by heating it with sulphur.

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