Science

List of Important Botany Terms and Description

List of Important Botany Terms and Description

List of Important Botany Terms and Description

TermDescription
AchenesA dry non-fleshy fruit containing a seed; the coat of this fruit is somewhat hard.
AcidIt is a substance which releases hydrogen ions in water and has a pH less than 7, e.g. hydrochloric acid in the human stomach.
AdolescenceIt is the period in the human life cycle between puberty and maturity.
AdditiveIn food technology, any natural or artificial chemical added to prolong the shelf life of processed foods (salt or nitrates), alter the color or flavor of food, or minerals).
AnaerobeIt is an organisation which requires oxygen to survive.
AgarIt is a jelly obtained from seaweeds which is used as a medium for culturing bacteria.
AlgaeA large group of primitive plants, mostly aquatic and capable of photosynthesis.
AnatomyIt is the study of the structure of the body and its components parts, especially the human body, as distinguished form physiology, which is the study of bodily functions.
AntibioticIt is a substance, synthesizes by micro organism, which damages or kills other micro organism.
AntherIn a flower, the upper part of a stamen containing pollen grains.
AquaticIt means living in water. All life originated in the early oceans.
Asexual reproductionIt is reproduction in which new organisms are formed a single parent without gamete production.
AutogamyIt means self fertilization.
AutoclaveIt is a pressure cooker used for the sterilization of materials.
AuxinsThese are plant hormones which control many aspects of plant growth.
AwnThis refers to a needle-like bristle at the tip of a floral scale in grasses, sedges, and other plants.
Baermann funnelIt is an apparatus used to isolate organisms living in soil water, e.g. algae protozoa.
Balanced dietIt is the diet that includes carbohydrated, protein, fat, vitamins, water, minerals and roughage.
BenthosThese are the flora and fauna of the bottom of oceans and lakes.
BeriberiIt is inflammation of the nerve endings, mostly occurring in the tropics and resulting from a deficiency of vitamin B (thiamine).
BiologyIt is the study of living things. There are many specializations including cytology (the study of cells), zoology (the study of animals), and ecology (the study of the environment).
BiotechnologyIt is the industrial use of living organisms to manufacture food, drugs or other products.
BiofuelIt is a kind of fuel which is made from natural materials or waste.
BiomassIt is the total weight of all the organisms in a particular habitat.
BiosphereIt is the entire zone of air, land and water at the surface of the earth that is occupied by living things.
BulbIt is an organ of storages and vegetative reproduction.
CaffeineIt is a mildly addictive alkaloid found in a number of plants, such as tea, coffee and cola.
Capillary actionIt is the spontaneous movement of liquids up or down narrow tubes such as plant xylem vessels or the spaces existing between soil particles.
CaninesThese are sharp pointed tearing teeth near the front of the mouth used for killing prey and ripping of pieces of food.
CannabisIt is the source of a fibre and drugs like hashish and marijuana. Also called the Indian hemp or bhang plant.
CartilageIt is a flexible bluish-white connective tissue made up of the protein collagen.
CaseinIt is the main protein of milk, from which it can be separated by the action of acid, the enzyme rennin, or bacteria (souring); It is also the main component of cheese
CarpelIt is the female reproductive organ of a flower (megas-poprophyII) bearing the ovules which mature into seeds after fertilization.
CellIt is the smallest functional and structural unit of all living organisms.
CerealIt is the grass grown for its edible starch seeds. The term cereal refers primarily to barley and wheat, but may also refer to oats, maize, rye, millet and rice.
ChlorophyllIt is the green coloured pigment university found in plants, responsible for capturing the energy for photosynthesis.
ClavicleIt is the collar bone, in humans, it is vulnerable to fracture.
CorneaIt is the transparent front section of the eye. The cornea is curved and behaves as a fixed lens, so that light entering the eye is partly focused before it reaches the lends.
CorollaIt is a collective name for the petals of a flower.
Death rateIt is the number of deaths, measured in the human population as the number of deaths in one year per 1000 of population.
DeciduousThese are trees and shrubs that shed their leaves before the onset of winter or a dry season.
DefoliantIt is a chemical sprayed on plants that causes leaves to fall of prematurely.
DesertificationIt is the natural or man made conversation of arable or forest land into barren deserts.
Down’s syndromeIt is a human abnormality caused by a mutation in which the ovum has an extra chromosome.
EcologyIt is the study of structure and function of nature.
EctothermIt is a cold-blooded animal, such as a lizard, that relies on external warmth to raise its body temperature so that it can become active.
EgestionIt is the removal of undigested food or faeces from the gut.
EnzymeIt is a biological catalyst produced in cells and capable of speeding up the chemical reactions necessary for life by converting one molecule (substrate) into another.
EpidermisIt is the outermost layers of cells on an organism’s body.
FaecesThese are remains of food and other debris passed out of the digestive tract of animals.
FallopianIt is a tube or oviduct in mammals one of the two tubes that carry ova (eggs) from the ovary to the uterus.
FibrinIt is an insoluble blood protein used by the body to stop bleeding.
FossilThese are remains or traces of animal and plant life of the past found embedded in rock.
Fossil fuelIt is the fuel such as coal, oil and natural gas. These are remains of organism embedded in the surface of the earth.
FungiThese are primitive members of the plant family.
FungusIt is a kind of living thing, a simple plant which cannot make its own food.
GraftingIt is the process of uniting parts of two plants to form a single plant.
HabitatIt is the locality or external environment in which a plant or animal lives.
HaploidIt is an organism or structure having a single set of unpaired chromosomes.
HerbariumIt is an organized collection of plant specimens for identification and reference purposes.
HermaphroditeIt is an organism having both male and female reproductive organs in the same individual.
HorticultureIt is a branch of agriculture dealing with garden crops, generally fruits, vegetables and ornamentals.
IrisIt is the structure in the vertebrate eye which controls the size of the pupil and hence the amount of light entering the eye.
MetabolismIt describes all the change that happens inside living things.
OssiclesThese are the three tiny linked bones in the mammalian middle ear.
OvuleIt is a somewhat oval body attached to the ovary wall in a flower which matures into a seed after fertilization.
ParasitismIt is a biological association between organisms in which one, the parasite, benefits at the expense of the other, the host.
PalateIt is in mammals, the ceiling of the mouth.
PredatorIt is an animal that feeds on other animals which are called the prey.
Radiocarbon datingIt is the method of finding out the age of fossils by determining the amount of radiocarbon remaining in them.
RetinaIt is light-sensitive tissue lining the interior of the vertebrate eye, and consisting of two types of cells.
RhizomeIt is an organ of vegetative reproduction in flowering plants consisting of a horizontal underground stem growing from a parent plant.
RootIt is part of a flowering plant that normally grows down into the soil.
SavannahIt is a grassland with scattered trees.
SaprophyteIt is an organism that feeds on dead and decaying plants and animals, causing decomposition.
Short sightIt is Myopia.
TransplantationIt is the relocation of seedlings from nursery beds to the actual site of plantation.
TropismIt is a plant growth movement in response to a stimulus, for example, light.
TuberIt is an organ of vegetative reproduction in flowering plants.

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