Science, Study Materials

List of Glossary of Physics Terms and Description

Glossary of Physics Terms and Description

List of Glossary of Physics Terms and Description

TermDescription
AccelerationIt is the rate of change of the velocity of a moving body.
AcousticsIt is the experimental and theoretical science of sound and its transmission.
Alternative energyIt is the energy from sources that are renewable and ecological safe, as opposed to sources that are non-renewable with toxic by-product, such as coal, oil or gas and uranium.
AltimeterIt is an instrument used in aircraft that measures altitude, or height above sea level.
AmmeterIt is a device used to measure current.
Archimedes principleIt is the law stating that an object that is totally or partly submerged in a fluid displaces a volume of fluid that weighs the same as the apparent loss in weight of the object.
ArmatureIt is a part of some electric machines.
AtmosphereIt is the mixture of gases that surrounds the Earth; it is prevented from escaping by the pull of the Earth’s gravity.
AtomIt is the smallest unit of matter that can take part in a chemical reaction and which cannot be broken down chemically into anything simpler.
AstrophysicsIt is the study of the structure of the universe and how the objects in it behave.
BallisticsIt is the science of the movement and behaviour of missiles. Projectiles from guns, refuels and slings, bombs, rockets and so forth.
BarometerIt is the instrument that measures atmospheric pressure as indication weather.
BuoyancyIt is the effect of the upward force (upthrust) on an objective in a fluid.
CalibrateIt describes how a measuring scale is marked.
CalliperIt is a kind of measuring instrument.
CalorieIt is a unit of energy content of food.
CalorimeterIt is an apparatus for measuring heat.
CantileverIt is a beam securely fixed at one end and hanging fee at the other hand.
CapacitorIt is a device which can store electricity.
CapillarityIt is an effect of surface tension.
CaratIt is a unit of weight for gems and precious metals. One carat is equal to 200 milligrams.
CathodeIt is a negative electrode in a cell.
CelsiusThe temperature scale in which one division or degree is taken as one hundredth part of the interval between the freezing point (00C) and the boiling point (1000 C) of water at standard atmospheric pressure.
CentrifugalIt is a force away from the centre that may appear to be observed during motion in a curve.
CentripetalIt is the force that is necessary to keep an object moving in a circular path and that is directed inwards towards the centre of rotation.
Chain reactionIt is a situation where one event cause a second, this leads to a third, and so on.
Circuit breakerIt is a safety switch that automatically cuts off the current when there is an overland.
ClimateIt is the long-term pattern of weather in a region.
Compassit is an instrument which helps people to find their way from one place to another.
Cooling towerIt is part of a power station.
CoulombIt is a unit of electric charge.
CubeIt has a solid shape, it has six square sides which are all the same size.
CurieIt is a unit of radio-activity.
DecibelIt is a unit of measurement. It measures the loudness of sound.
DiffusionIt is the movement of atoms and molecules in gases and liquids.
DigitalIt is a term meaning coded as number.
DiodeIt is a term part of some electric circuits.
DockingIt is the mechanical coupling of two or more spacecraft.
DynamoIt is a simple generator, or machine for transforming mechanical energy into electrical energy.
EchoIt is a sound which is reflected.
Eclipseit is passage of an astronomical body through the shadow of another.
ElectromagnetIt is a special coil of wire.
ElementIt is substance that cannot be split chemically into simpler substances.
ElasticallyIt is an elastic substance which obey Hooke’s law. This means that if we stretch or compress a sample, it deforms (stains) in proportion. It returns to its original state when the stress ceases.
ElectronIt is one of the basic particles of matter.
EpicentreIt is a point directly above the true centre of disturbing from which the shock wavers of an earthquakes apparently radiate.
Escape speedIt is the speed of an object leaving the surface of a planet, such that it just escapes the gravitational pull.
Escape velocityIt is the minimum velocity with which an object must be projected for it to escape from the gravitational pull of a planetary body.
FalloutThese are the radio-active substance deposited upon the surface of the earth after the explosion of a nuclear weapon of mishap at a nuclear reactor.
Fibre opticsIt is branch of physics dealing with the transmission of light and images though glass or plastic known as optical fibres.
FilamentIt is a thin, high resistance wire as in an electric light bulb.
FilterIt is a kind of apparatus which helps to separate a mixture.
Fleming’s rulesThese are memory aids for the directions of the magnetic field, current and motion in an electric generator or motor, using one’s fingers.
Fly wheelIt is a heavy wheels connected to the shaft of an engine. it maintains the smooth rotation of the shaft because of its high inertia.
Forensic scienceIt carries out test and searches for clues to help the police and lawyers.
Fossil fuelAny fuel produced by the slow decay of dead things and which, therefore, is not renewable.
Free fallIt is the state in which a body is falling freely under the influence of gravity, as in free-fall parachuting.
FrictionIt is the force that opposes the relative motion of two bodies in contact.
FuseIt is a thin piece of wire, a part of an electric circuit.
GalvanometerIt is a sensitive instrument for detecting or measuring small electric currents.
GasIt is a state of matter which has no fixed shape or volume and always fills the whole of the space in which it is contained.
Geiger counterIt is a device which measures radiation.
GeneratorIt is a machine that transfers kinetic energy to electricity.
Greenhouse effectIt is a phenomenon of the Earth’s atmosphere by which solar radiation, absorbed by the Earth and re-emitted from the surface, is prevented from escaping by gases, mainly carbon dioxide in the air.
GridIt is the network by which electricity is generated and distributed over a region or country.
HectareIt is a unit of measurement which measures area.
HertzIt is a unit of measurement which measures the frequency of vibrations.
HexagonIt is a flat shape which has six sides.
Horse power (hp)It is a practical unit of power which equal to 550 foot-pound per second or 746 watts.
HurricaneIt is a powerful whirling tropical storm that measures 320 to 480 kilometres in diameter.
HydraulicsIt is the branch of physics that deals with the behaviour of liquids at rest and in motion.
HydrometerIt is an instrument used to measures the relatives density of liquids (the density compared with that of water).
HydrosphereThe water of the earth, ocean lakes, rivers and glaciers that cover about three-fourths of the earth’s surface.
HygrometerIt is an instrument used to measure the amount of water vapour in the air.
HypersonicThe sound waves which have frequencies above 500 megahertz.
Hypersonic speedThe speed of an object greater than about five times the speed of sound in the fluid through which the object is moving.
InertiaThe tendency of an object to remain in a state of rest of uniform motion until an external force is applied, as stated by Newton’s first law of motion.
Information TechnologyIt is a scientific subject, the study of how to collect, use, move, store and display information.
InsulationIt is the process by which the passage of electricity, heat or sound is prevented through a material.
ImagingIt is a technique by which electronics data collected by various means is converted into visual image by use of computers.
IsotopesThese are atoms of an element having the same atomic number but different atomic weights.
Jet lagIt is a state of feeling unwell and exhausted experienced by air travellers when they cross several time zones in a relatively short time.
Kinetic energyIt is a form of energy possessed by moving bodies. It is contrasted with potential energy.
KnotIt is a unit for measuring ship’s speed.
LaserThe name stands for Light Amplification by stimulated Emission of Radiation. A device able to produce an intension narrow beam of radiation.
Latent heatIt is the heat required to change the state of a substance (for example, from solid to liquid) without changing its temperature.
LatitudeIt is the distance of a point on the earth’s surface from the equator.
Lighting conductorIt is a conductor of electricity installed in a structure to save it from damage.
Light-yearIt is a unit of distance used in astronomy. It is defined as the distance light travels through space in one year. Light travels at 300,000 km per second.
Mach numberIt is a measure of the speed of an object, specially an aircraft. If the Mach number exceeds one, the object is said to be moving at a supersonic speed.
ManometerAn instrument for measuring the pressure of liquids (including human blood pressure) or gases.
MechanicsIt is the study of movement of material bodies.
MeridianIt is an imaginary circle passing through both the poles of a celestial sphere, It is also the imaginary plane passing through the Earth’s axis.
MeteorologyIt is the study of climate and weather patterns, with the aim of trying to explain, predict and change them.
MicaIt is a group of silicate minerals having layered structure.
MicroscopeIt is an instrument for magnification with high resolution for detail.
MirageIt is the illusion seen in hot climate of water on the horizon, or of distant objects being enlarged.
MissileIt is guided unmanned weapon which is usually propelled by a rocked.
ModeratorIt is a substance that is used to slow down neutrons emitted in a nuclear fission reaction.
Moleculeit is a group of one or more atoms bonded together, a basic participle of matter.
MomentumIt is a property dependent on the mass and velocity of a body.
Nautical mileIt is a unit of measurement, it measures distances across seas and oceans.
Nuclear fissionit is the process whereby an atomic nucleus breaks up with the emissions of several neutrons.
Nuclear reactorIt is the central component of a nuclear power station that generated nuclear energy under controlled conditions for use as a source of electrical power.
Nuclear wasteIt is the radio-active and toxic by-products of the nuclear-energy and nuclear-weapons industries.
OhmThe SI unit of electrical resistance, named after Georg Simon Ohm.
OpaqueIt described a substance which does not allow light to pass through it.
OpticsIt is the study of nature and properties of light.
OscillationOne completer to and-fro movement of a vibrating object or system.
PeriscopeIt is an optical instrument designed for observation from a concealed position such as from a submerged submarine.
PhotonIt is a particle which has been invented by scientist to explain how light behaves.
PhysicsIt is the branch of science concerned with the ultimate laws that govern the structure of the universe and the forms of matter and energy and their interactions.
PistonIt is a part of a machine, it is fitted inside a cylinder and moves back wards and forwards.
PlutoniumIt is a radioactive metallic element (symbol Pu) of proton number 94 and relative atomic mass 239.13.
PoleIt is a region of a magnetic field where the force is strongest. Most bar magnets have two poles.
PollutionThe effect on the surface of the Earth of poisonous or harmful substances that makes life less safe or pleasant for living organisms.
Potential energyIt is stored energy.
Primary colourA primary colour is one of there different colours of light red. Green and blue colours.
PrismIn optics, a triangular block of transport material (plastic glass, silica) commonly used to, bend’ a ray of light or split a beam into its special colours.
ProjectileA particle that travels with both horizontal and vertical motion in the Earth’s gravitational field.
Quantum mechanicsIt is the part of physics that deals with radiation and the movement of atomic particles.
RaderAn acronym for radio direction and ranging device for locating objects in space, direction finding, and navigation by means of transmitted and reflected high-frequency radio waves.
Radiant heatIt is energy that is radiated by all warm or hot bodies.
RadiationIt is a kind of energy which is moving.
RadioactivityIt is the spontaneous alteration, or decay, of the nuclei of radioactive atoms, accompanied by the emission of radiation.
Radiocarbon datingIt is a method of dating organic materials (for example, bone or wood), used in archaeology.
RainbowIt is an arch in the sky displaying the colours of the spectrum formed by the refraction and reflection of the Sun’s rays through rain of mist.
ReflectionThe throwing back or deflection of waves, such as light or sound waves, when they hit a surface.
RefractionIt is the bending of waves of light, heat or sound when is passes from one medium to another.
Relativity theoryA theory that described matter, space and time and how they relate to each other.
RetineIt is the inner layer at the back of the vertebrate eye, which contains light-sensitive cells and nerve fibres.
RobotIt is a kind of machine that can do jobs without human help.
RocketIt is a projectile driven by the reaction of gases produced by a fast-burning fuel.
SatelliteIt is a kind of spacecraft.
Satellite dishIt is a kind of aerial.
SeismographIt is an instruments that amplifies and record small movements of the ground caused by earthquakes or explosions.
SemiconductorCrystalline material with an electrical conductivity between that of metals (good) and insulators (poor).
SensorIt is a device that takes in and reacts to some kind of input energy and out puts a related electrical signal.
ShaftIt is a rod which rotates and is connected to the axis of a wheel or a gear.
Short circuitIt is the accidental or deliberate joining of two parts of an electric circuit by a conductor of less resistance that allows an excessive current to flow, usually blowing a fuse.
Silicon chipIt is a kind of crystal.
SiphonIt is a curved pipe or tube and is used to move liquids from one container to another.
SolderIt is an alloy and is used to join together wires and electronics components.
SonarIt is a device which is fitted to ship and submarines and it is used to find objects under water.
SpectrometerIt is an instrument used to study the composition of light emitted by a source.
Speed of lightIt is the speed at which light travels through emply space. Its value is  299,792, 458 metres per second.
Speed of soundIt is the speed at which sound travels through a medium, such as air on water. In air at a temperature of 00c, the speed of sound is 331 metres per second.
SparkA high energy discharge through a gas that lasts for a very short time, it is accompanied by a flash of light and a sharp crackling noise.
Solar energyIt is energy derived from the sun’s radiation.
SolsticeOne of the two times of each year when the sun reaches its maximum northerly or southerly position among the stars. In the northern hemisphere, the summer solstice on June 21, is the longest day of the year and winter solstice on December 21 is the shortest day of the year.
Sound barrierIt is the point at which an aircraft attains the speed of sound.
SuperconductorIt is a substance which has no electrical resistance.
SupersonicIt means faster that the speed of sound.
TelescopeIt is a device for collecting and focusing light and other forms of electromagnetic radiation form distant objects.
ThermometerIt is a device used measures temperature of hotness.
ThermostatIt is a device used to keep the temperature in some place with in a set range.
TideIt is the rise and fall of sea level due to the gravitational forces of the Moon and Sun.
TransformerIt is a device whose normal use is to transfer electrical energy with a change in voltage between input and output.
TransistorIt is a device for controlling the flow of minute electric current. It serves as a rectifier or as an amplifier of current.
TransponderIt is a transmitter cum-receiver which receive radio signals and retransmits them automatically often at a different frequency after amplification.
TroposphereIt is the lowest part, of the earth’s atmosphere in which most of the weather phenomena occur.
UFOIt is an unidentified Flying Object.
UltrasonicsIt is the study and application of the sound and vibration produced by ultrasonic pressure waves.
UraniumRadioactive metallic element (system U) of proton number 92 and relatives atomic mass 238.029.
VaporizationIt is the change of state of a substance from liquid to vapour.
VelocityIt is the speed of an object in a given direction, or the rate of change of an object’s displacement.
VHFIt is very High frequency referring to radio waves that have very short wavelengths.
ViscosityResistance of fluids (liquids and gases) to flow. It is caused by friction between the fluid molecules moving against each other.
VoltageIt is the electrical pressure or potential difference measured in volts.
VoltmeterIt is an electrical instrument which measures voltage.
VortexIt is intense circular or whirling motion of a fluid.
WarheadIt is the part of a missile, usually placed at the tip. containing a chemical explosive or incendiary charge and a mechanism for setting it off. It may also carry a nuclear device.
Water cycleIt is the continuous movement water between the ocean, atmosphere and the land. Water from the ocean evaporates by Sun’s heat and enters the atmosphere as water vapour. The water vapour condenses and comes down as rain from where it flows through streams and rivers into the ocean, thus completing the cycle.
WattIt is the unit or power, the rate of energy transfer.

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